The allied victory at Red Cliffs ensured the survival of Liu Bei and Sun Quan, gave them control of the Yangtze and provided a line of defence that was the basis for the later creation of the two southern states of Shu Han and Eastern Wu. Liu Bei gained territory by taking over the four commanderies (Wuling, Changsha, Lingling and Guiyang) south of the Yangtze River.
Excluding tone marks, the pinyin romanization of this cliff's name is "Chibi", the same as the pinyin for Red Cliffs. His brother Su Zhe and his father Su Xun were both famous literati. For example, dramas based on stories revolving around Su Shi and Red Cliff were produced in great numbers Factions had arisen supporting either of Liu Biao's two sons in a struggle for succession. Cao's first tactical mistake was converting his massive army of infantry and cavalry into a marine corps and navy: with only a few days of drills before the battle, Cao Cao's troops were ravaged by sea-sickness and lack of experience on water. Cao Cao had chained his ships from stem to stern, possibly aiming to reduce seasickness in his navy, which was composed mostly of northerners who were not used to living on ships. This may be attributed to the ethos of later times, particularly of the Southern Song dynasty (de Crespigny 2007:483). Two warlords controlled the regions of the Yangtze that were key to Cao Cao's success: Liu Biao, the Governor of Jing Province, controlled the area west of the mouth of the Han River (roughly encompassing the area around the city of Xiakou and all territory south of that region), and Sun Quan, who controlled the river east of the Han and the southeastern territories abutting it (de Crespigny 2007:773).
釋文： The control of Jing Province provided Liu Bei with virtually unlimited access to the passage into Yi Province and important waterways into Wu (southeastern China) and dominion of the southern Yangtze River. Another candidate is Wuhan, which straddles the Yangtze at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers. The allied counterattack might have vanquished Cao Cao and his forces entirely. One popular candidate for the battle site is Chibi Hill in Huangzhou, sometimes referred to as "Su Dongpo's Red Cliffs" or the "Literary Red Cliffs" (文赤壁). Seeing the situation was hopeless, Cao Cao then issued a general order of retreat and destroyed a number of his remaining ships before withdrawing (Chen c. 280). Arts >> Since the Yangtze flows roughly eastward towards the ocean (with northeast and southeast meanders), Red Cliffs must at least be west of Fankou, which is farther downstream.
To commemorate these trips, Su wrote two rhapsodies that would earn him universal praise in the annals of Chinese literature: "Odes to the Red Cliff." Countless calligraphers also repeatedly transcribed Su’s two rhapsodies on Red Cliff, which likewise became popular among painters wishing to illustrate and celebrate Su Shi and Red Cliff. As Huang Gai's "defecting" squadron approached the midpoint of the river, the sailors applied fire to the ships before taking to small boats. which were supplemented by Wen Zhengming (文徵明, 1470-1559) with annotations in small characters, The combined Sun-Liu force sailed upstream from either Xiakou or Fankou to Red Cliffs, where they encountered Cao Cao's vanguard force. There are also characters engraved in the cliffs (see image at the top of this page) suggesting that this is the site of the battle. Su Shi (蘇軾)’s Second Ode to the Red Cliffs (Hou Chibifu 後赤壁賦) Both the First and the Second Odes are two of the most celebrated pieces in Chinese history. When Jing Province fell, Liu Bei quickly fled south, accompanied by a refugee population of civilians and soldiers.  The battle was fought between the allied forces of the southern warlords Sun Quan, Liu Bei and Liu Qi against the numerically superior forces of the northern warlord Cao Cao. Heavy rains had made the road so treacherous that many of the sick soldiers had to carry bundles of grass on their backs and use them to fill the road to allow the horsemen to cross. Calligraphy >> Following the initial shock, Zhou Yu and the allies led a lightly armed force to capitalise on the assault. 於是飲酒樂甚，扣舷而歌之。歌曰：“桂棹兮蘭槳，擊空明兮溯流光。渺渺兮余懷，望美人兮天一方。”客有吹洞簫者，倚歌而和之。其聲嗚嗚然，如怨如慕，如泣如訴，余音嫋嫋，不絕如縷。
while also facing the realities of life's brevity and the hypocritical nature of people. To restore order, a detachment led by Sun Quan's general Gan Ning established a bridgehead in Yiling to the north, and only a staunch rearguard action by Cao Ren prevented further catastrophe (Eikenberry 1994:60; de Crespigny 2007:239).
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