KRUPNIK, Igor, and Michael CHLENOV, 1979 “Dinamika etno-lingvisticheckoi situatsii u aziatskikh eskimosov (konets XIX v.–1970- e gg. Bogoslovskaya used Rubtsova’s dictionary extensively, and checked certain names against Vakhtin and Emelyanova’s list.
comm., March 2018; see also Figure 2); and contemporary Chukchi lists include 40 to 45 names for individual bird species (Apalu et al. 2,200), of whom over a thousand actively speak the language. NORTON, David. Ornithologist Laurence Irving (1958, 66) once argued that the Inuit knowledge of birds differed by (bird) families compared to biologists’ taxonomies.
To the contrary, Arctic Indigenous knowledge of birds remains poorly known beyond scores of published lists of bird names in Native languages and dialects. Another crucial next step is to record contemporary bird terminologies used by Indigenous people in Chukotka (see Apalu et al.
WIKIPEDIA, 2016 S.v., “List of Birds of Nunavut.” Accessed July 26, 2016.
A meaningful comparison of Indigenous and biological bird taxonomies is also hindered by the presence of many synonyms for species names in Indigenous languages that both biologists and today’s native speakers have trouble explaining, such as the previously mentioned five names for common eider (Somateria mollissima) or three names for long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis)—aahaangwliq, kangghwaak, and uyangsaq—plus an additional name for a drake (male duck), ugeyiighaq, in the St. Lawrence Island Yupik (Jacobson et al. The first word is in Chaplinski Yupik in Cyrillic orthography; the second added term is in St. Lawrence Island Yupik Roman orthography, followed by the English, and scientific binomial name. This early phase of language shift is illustrated by the list of over 100 words for birds and associated cultural terminology in the St. Lawrence Island Yupik dictionary (Jacobson et al. In the North Slope Iñupiaq dialect, dozens of bird species have different names in its three sub-dialects of Utkiabvik (Barrow), Point Hope, and Anaktuvuk Pass (MacLean 2014). By the time ornithologists and linguists compiled the first Native lists of bird names, the Yupik in Chukotka had already lost certain layers of their traditional bird taxonomy, but some of its elements may be construed. The number of species with parallel names also drops dramatically; even Native language experts cannot explain the meaning of the remaining synonyms. For the latter we have four critical sources: (1) list from the 1950s compiled by biologists and organized by orders and taxa (58 names for species) (Fay and Cade 1959); (2) an alphabetical list produced by Yupik language expert Willis Walunga (1986, 49–50) in the 1980s (64 names for individual species); (3) the list of 70 names that I compiled from the St. Lawrence Island (SLI) Yupik–English dictionary (Jacobson et al. They speak Central Siberian Yupik (also known as Yuit), a Yupik language of the Eskimo–Aleut family of languages.
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