Clan areas in northern Somalia 4. In discussing the unusually frank tone of the report, Hassan Abdi Madar states: "The report is addressed to the President of the SDR, the Minister of Defence, and Minister of Interior. war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide) had been perpetrated during the country's civil war". The government has been based on an alliance between the Mareehan, Ogaden and Dolbahanta clans, commonly referred to as the MOD alliance, although there are indications that this alliance has been strained since the middle of 1989. See more ». Bruce Jentleson, former director of the Sanford School of Public Policy describes the massacre of Isaaq civilians as follows: Government forces responded with "appalling savagery", targeting the entire Isaaq civilian population with arrests, rape, mass executions, and indiscriminant shooting and bombing, Hundreds of thousands of Isaaq refugees fled for their lives across the Ethiopian border; government warplanes strafed them as they fled. The brutal nature of the Siad Barre government response was unprecedented, and led to what Robin Cohen described as one of the "worst civil wars in Africa". Aden Ahmed Dube of the Isaaq, Habr-Yonis tribe, great poems aroused envy in Raage Ugaz, and infrequently, bloody wars and irreconcilable enmity. Reer Shiekh Ishaq (Ishaak or Isaaq) is one of the major Somali tribes that reside at northren parts of Somalia as well as the eastren regions of Ithopia, Reer Shiekh Isaac inhibit the major towns and cities of the northren Somalia such as Hargeisa, Berbera, Buro, and Erigavo. [Africa Confidential, 14 April 1989, p. The first Somali state to be granted its independence from colonial powers was Somaliland, a former British protectorate that gained independence on 26 June 1960.
A United States Congressional General Accounting Office team reported the Somali government's response to the SNM attack as follows: The Somali army reportedly responded to the SNM attacks in May 1988 with extreme force, inflicting heavy civilian casualties and damages to Hargeisa and Burao....The Somali military resorted to using artillery and aerial shelling in heavily populated urban centres in its effort to retake Burao and Hargeisa. Foreign aid workers who fled the fighting confirmed that Burao was "emptied out" as a result of the government's campaign. One of the militias formed by the Ogaden refugees was the WSLF, officially created to fight Ethiopia and "reclaim ethnic Somali territory" in Ethiopia but it was used primarily against local Isaaq civilians and nomads. Years of sustained state violence have created a serious level of political unrest in the region.  A significant number of civilian deaths at the time occurred as a result of government soldiers robbing them, those who refused to hand valuables (watches, jewellery and money) or were not quick enough to comply with soldiers' demands were shot on the spot. Between June and the end of September, government forces as well as armed Ethiopian (Ogadeni) refugees continued to raid the immediate vicinity of Berbera as well as the villages between Berbera and Hargeisa.  The Barre regime's oppressive policies against the Isaaq continued when in 1981, the Barre regime declared economic warfare on Somalis from the northwest and specifically the Isaaq.
The countryside was an area of operations for the government-armed Ethiopian (Ogadeni) refugees. The total population of Isaaq clan is estimated between 2 to 3 million. Human Rights Watch reported that the refugees often "rampaged through villages and nomadic encampments near their numerous camps and claimed the lives of thousands of others, mostly nomads". Barre along with the Supreme Revolutionary Council, to entrench their rule and in an attempt to regain the Somali Region of Ethiopia, launched a war against Ethiopia in 1977, this war was referred to in Somalia as 'The War for Western Somalia'. Unionpedia is a concept map or semantic network organized like an encyclopedia – dictionary.
, In addition to state-sponsored violence, other means of crushing the Isaaq uprising included the government's continuation of its policy of political repression and harsh economic measures, this included withholding international food aid donations to the Isaaq. For a summarized report on the fighting which took place in Hargeisa, please refer to the attached copy of Africa Research Bulletin, 15 July 1988, p. 8919 and 15 August 1988, p. 9048.
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