gothic adverbs list

leather thong (n.) – skaudaraips (*m. A) Adverbs for gothic include gothically and Gothically. – *Nairþus (m. U) I) (in lustau) Nom.) surround, to – bisatjan (I j weak) avenger (n.) – *fraweitands (m. Nd) increase, to – biaukan (VII) ), so (f. ‘cacao-food’). accepted (adj.) *Bulgarisks (adj. near – nehwa *rapa (f. O) 3.

– *arbaidiláus (adj.

brother (n.) – broþar (m. R), ~s = broþrahans (m. N) A) seek, to (v.) – sokjan (I weak i)

profitable – 1. batizo (adv.) comfort, to – 1. anaþrafstjan (I weak) 2. gaþlaihan (I red) drink (n.) – dragk (n. A) school – 1.

close, to – ~ a book = falþan (III red) bokos (f. O)

Iapan (m. A) light – 1. liuhaþ (n. A) 2. liuhadei (f. N) 3. leihts (adj.

hi – see: hello

silence – þahains (f. I) , in ~ = in hauniþai (f. O) A) hither – hidre A) slanderer – diabula (f. O)

preparation – manwiþa (f. O) – ufta teach, to – 1. laisjan (I i weak) 2. talzjan (I i weak) raþa) 2. electron – *elaiktraun (n.) *filmahus (n. A) Gothic (n.) –  *Gutisk (n. A), Gutrazda (f. O)

unleavened – unbeistjoþs (past-perf) Copenhagen – *Kaupahabana (f. O) It should be noted that -mann-compounds appear to be a later development in Germanic: the usual early denominative agent-suffix was -jan- and deverbative -an-; cf. stranger – 1. gasts (m. I) 2. aljakuns (adj. n-stem) would be more likely. keyboard – *bokabaurd (n. A) (computer)

voice-transmitter) 3. despise, to – frakunnan (pret-pres) + dat. grass – hawi (n. Ja) baptism (n.) – daupei (f. N) spear – *gais (m. A) peck, to (v.) – *pikon (II weak) *airþaleisa (f. O) (declined like a strong adjective) The element -leis- appears to be ultimately an adjective, derived from the verb *lisan (preterite present class). supper – nahtamats (m. I) (Conj.) solitary – auþeis (adj. corporeal – leikeins (adj.

A) (rich of = gabigs in + dat) Golja þuk 3. while – 1. hweila (f. O) 2. miþþanei (With contrast, used as in: I was here, while he was there.

note, to (v.) – gatarhjan (I weak i) pomp – wulþus (m. U) calling (n.) – laþons (f. I) democracy (n.) – *dēmaúkratia (f. Jo) – *afganatjis (adj. steel – stahl(s) (m., n. A) (W.E.) preaching – mereins (f. I/O) state – reiki (n. Ja)

A) (food or product which is from the wild) ), ‘quantum-mechanics’ = *kwantum-maikanika (neut. bitterness – baitrei (f. N) bedroom (n.) – (neol) badiheþjo (f. N) / (neol) slepaheþjo (f. N) awake, to (v.) – gawaknan (IV weak) 2. usskarjan (I weak j) (awake from something bad, power from evil)

▲, Handwriting worksheets using the word list: Gothic Horror guest-chamber (n.) – saliþwos (f. O) (plural) Oegir (myth.) head (n.) – haubiþ (n. A) anointer (n.) – *gasmeitands (m. Nd)/*gasmeitandi (f. Jo)

worthy (adv) – wairþaba *kneifs (m. A) 2. empty – laus (adj. However, occasional small irregularities may occur, and the table below errs on the side of under-generalization. forest – *widus (m. U) jeopardy (n.) – to be in ~ = birekjai wisan (abl. conversion – gawandeins (f. I/O) spleen – *miltja steal, to – stilan (IV abl) poet – liuþareis (m. Ja) tittle – striks (m. I) barn (n.) – bansts (m. I) barren (n.) – stairo (f. N) Monday – *menins dags (m. A) A) A) serve, to – 1. skalkinon (II weak) + dat 2. andbahtjan (I i weak) + dat Old Norse: heims-kringla) 2. boaster – bihaitja (m. N) download, to – *ufarbairan (IV abl) geologist – 1. pedophile – 1. suit, to – gatiman (IV) Portugal – *Paurtukaljis (m. Ja) + acc.

little head) Buttons were unknown in the ancient world, not becoming a part of clothing until the Middle Ages.

Roman (n.) – Rumonus (m. U/I) dance, to – plinsjan (I i weak) cease, to – sweiban (i abl) , not ~ = ni hweilan (III weak) bisexual – 1. *ufwaurpa (f. O) 2. to be ~ to ordinances = urredan (abl red) (hwa þanaseiþs swe qiwai in þamma fairhwau urrediþ? doctrine – laiseins (f. I/O) urology – *hlandaleisei (f. N) *karrs (m. A)wait, to – beidan (I abl) + gen. (Waiting for the kingdom of God = beidands þiudangardjos gudis; thing waited for is in the genitive) brotherly love (n.) – broþrulubo (f. N) colt – fula (m. N) fright – agis (n. A) breast (n.) – brusts (f. hinder, to – analatjan (I j weak) towel – *þwahilo (f. N) (W. E.) word – waurd (n. A) *gaitisugja (m. N) (reconstructed by B. P. Johnson) 2. linguist – 1. thirtieth – *þrijatiguda (comp.) observation (n.) – atwitains (f. I) ant (n.) – *miurjo (f. N) duck (n.) – *anuþs (f. N) persecution (n.) – 1. wrakja (f. Jo) 2. wraka (f. O) 3. wrekei (f. N) earl – *airls (m. A) *walhiska (adj. Galilee – Galeilaius (m. U/I) (to intend to) munnan lifestyle (n.) – usmet (n. A) = Seinai) change – inmaideins (f. I/O)

*gabls (m. A) costly – galaufs (adj. bitter – baitrs (adj. stand, to – standan (VI abl) ~ with = miþwisan (unspecified verb) ), seinaizo (gen. F pl. god-fearing – gudafaurhts (adj.

wheel – 1. *karrs (m. A); One can suggest *karrs: Ammianus Marcellinus (31,7.7 and 12.11) gives a Latinized Gothic word ‘carrago’ = *Karrahago (fem. forum (n.) – *maþl (n. A) (online too) Ja) gladness – swegniþa (f. O)

learned – *uslaisiþs (past-perf), never ~ = unuslaisiþs (past-perf)

foolish – unfroþs (adj. stedfastly – *tulguba university – 1. Hunds anþar beitiþ bain is (þatei ist bain hundis meinis). (f.) dwalo (f. N) – *bruns (adj. *fuglaseþs (m. I) 2. neutron – *niutraun (n. A) question – sokns (f. I) key – *lukils (m. A)

*stairnalibainileisa (f. O) (declined like an adjective) withstand, to – andstandan (VI) Gen + dat and all plural forms) þatei, (f. shepherd – hairdeis (m. Ja) – raihts (adj. belief – galaubeins (f. I/O) *paulisks (adj. thief – hliftus (m. U) morning-star – auzawandils (m. A) produce, to – usbairan (IV abl.) send, to (v.) – ~ away = fraletan (red abl) (fralet þo managein = Send the multitude away)

theoretical examples:

concord (n.) – samaqiss (f. I) giant – 1. history – *spill (n. A) temple – alhs (m. Cons) *andaþahtaba (adv) magazine – *leihtos bokos (f. O plural) rightly (adv.) everywhere – hwaruh geology – *airþaleisei (f. N) answer (n.) – andahafts (f. I)

desolate – ainakls (adj. effect (n.) – taui (n. Ja) cry (n.) – hrops (m. A) tetrach – fidurragini (n. Ja) Loki (myth.) A) ), ins (m. pride – hauhhairtei (f. N) *Gronilandiska (adj.

hostile – andaneiþs (adj. satisfied (adj.) *eisarnamarhs (m. A) (lit. longer – no ~ = ni þanaseiþs cleansing – gahraineins (f. I/O) example – frisahts (f. I)

gracious – hulþs (adj. error – 1. airzei (f. N) 2. airziþa (f. O) protect, to (v.) – bairgan (III abl) deepness – diupei (f. N) – ni aiw A) ~ of the tribe = inkunja (m. N) beer (n.) – *alu (n. U), barley ~ = barizalu (n. U), black ~ = swartalu (n. U), wheat ~ = hwaitjalu (n. U), white ~ = hweitalu (n. U) receiving – andanumts (f. I) Given the existence of ‘freihals’ (rather than *frijahals), ‘freitimrja’ should be acceptable as well. A)

Stem-final -g- in magan, ōgan, and áigan is often changed to -h-, especially before voiceless consonants. A) 2. gaguþs (adj.

unrighteousness – inwindiþa (f. O) birch – *bairka (f. O)

train – *tauhts (f. I) weighty – kaurus (adj. 2. baidjan (I weak i) + acc. mediator – midumonds (m. Nd) smooth – slaihts (adj. Jesuit – *Iesuitus (m. U) plumage – *fiþrahama (m. N) warmth – *warmei (f. N) *sauhtar (m. R) (brother’s son) (Reconstructed by Nelson Goering) seem, to (v.) – þugkjan (I weak i), it ~s to me = þugkeiþ mis creep, to – sliupan (II abl) (as in creep into the house) *twafalþs (adj.

A) i-stem; from PG *bankiz) garden – aurtigards (m. I) gird, to – bigairdan (III abl) offline (adj.) Category:Gothic adverb forms: Gothic adverbs that are inflected to display grammatical relations other than the main form.

A) in ~ = in analaugnein anymore (adv.) bird – fugls (m. A) graveyard – *nawistre gards (m. I) ▲, "Thank goodness for Spellzone during this remote learning phase.

see, to (v.) – saihwan (V abl.) worshipper – 1. *Walhisks (adj. earth – airþa (f. O) pres.) password – (neol) *gamotawaurd (n. A) block, to – faurdammjan (I i weak) (as in to block the way) put, to – lagjan (I weak j), ~ on = gahamon (II weak) + dat pugnacity – þrasabalþei (f. N) sue, to – staua (f. O) niman (IV abl.) disputer – sokareis (m. Ja) ungodliness – afgudei (f. N) threatening – hwota (f. O)

cubit – aleina (f. O) A) translation – gaskeireins (f. I/O) noble (adj.) A) razda (f. O) 2. bilingual (adj.) stake – 1. hnuþo (f. N) 2. nominative – *nominateibus (m. U) = qissai) allegoric (adj.) conspiracy – birunains (f. I) ~ theory = *unkusana gaskeireins (f. I/O) birunainais A) 2. froþs (adj. genuine (adj.) a-stem). *ōgan ("to fear") is the only verb in the group known to have an imperative. telescope – *fairrasiuns (f. I) A, weak), at the ~ time = samana *Bulgariska (adj. outside – uta, from the ~ = utana + gen

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